Thursday, April 21, 2016

Getting All Permissions for Server

We recently had to work out a way to fetch and display all effective permissions granted to our Production SQL Server. I had been required to get all permissions at the DB level before, but even then that tended to be more granular and only showed to what roles you belonged and what explicit permissions you'd been granted. We wanted to run something through a loop of all users and get that information into a report. It turns out this was easier than I'd expected, especially after my first attempts to dig through the system tables.

We used a script something like the following:

EXECUTE as login = 'DomainName\Login';
select 'DomainName\Login' AS Login, * from fn_my_permissions (NULL, 'SERVER');
REVERT;

With a little work this can be used within PowerShell or SQL to loop through all logins and capture the information in a table or report.

 

The function could also be used to loop through all databases by using the database and then substituting Database for Server above:

USE AdventureWorks2012;
EXECUTE as login = 'DomainName\Login';
SELECT 'DomainName\Login', * FROM fn_my_permissions (NULL, 'DATABASE');
REVERT;

For an interesting take on revamping sp_msforeachdb, check out this script from Edward Pollack (t). It might help you if you need to loop through all of your databases to run something like this for your auditors.

Monday, February 29, 2016

SQL Server Audits and Action_IDs

We were recently re-doing our SQL Server Audits and I was reminded again how painful setting the filters can be. MS expects an integer for "action_id", but to actually use, them you need to know what those actually mean.

I came across this blog post by Chris Provolt listing the text versions of the action_id's. That was helpful, especially the quick query to see what's available:

Select DISTINCT action_id,name,class_desc,parent_class_desc from sys.dm_audit_actions

However, as you can tell by running this, the action_id's returned are all text values. That doesn't help when trying to set up your SQL Audits.

MSDN provides code for a function to translate the text audit_id into the expected numeric value.

CREATE FUNCTION dbo.Getint_action_id (@action_id VARCHAR(4))
returns INT
  BEGIN
      DECLARE @x INT;

      SET @x = CONVERT(INT, CONVERT(VARBINARY(1), Upper(
                            Substring(@action_id, 1, 1))));

      IF Len(@action_id) >= 2
        SET @x = CONVERT(INT, CONVERT(VARBINARY(1), Upper(
                              Substring(@action_id, 2, 1))
                              ))
                                         * Power(
                                                  2, 8) + @x;
      ELSE
        SET @x = CONVERT(INT, CONVERT(VARBINARY(1), ' ')) * Power(2, 8) + @x;

      IF Len(@action_id) >= 3
        SET @x = CONVERT(INT, CONVERT(VARBINARY(1), Upper(
                              Substring(@action_id, 3, 1))
                              ))
                                         * Power(
                                                  2, 16) + @x;
      ELSE
        SET @x = CONVERT(INT, CONVERT(VARBINARY(1), ' ')) * Power(2, 16) + @x;

      IF Len(@action_id) >= 4
        SET @x = CONVERT(INT, CONVERT(VARBINARY(1), Upper(
                              Substring(@action_id, 4, 1))
                              ))
                                         * Power(
                                                  2, 24) + @x;
      ELSE
        SET @x = CONVERT(INT, CONVERT(VARBINARY(1), ' ')) * Power(2, 24) + @x;

      RETURN @x;
  END; 

 

Once you create that function, you can use it to generate a list of the Integer action_ids, the text action_ids, and the name/description of those action_ids. (You can also expand it out to see which actions are applicable to various objects at the server and database level if you so desire.)

SELECT DISTINCT dbo.Getint_action_id(action_id) Action_ID_Int,
                action_id, NAME AS Action_Description
--,class_desc,parent_class_desc
FROM   sys.dm_audit_actions
ORDER  BY action_id

This will result in the following values (as of SQL 2012):

 

Action_ID_Int action_id NAME
1329873729 ACDO DATABASE_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP
542065473 ACO SCHEMA_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP
1329742913 ADBO BULK ADMIN
1346651201 ADDP DATABASE_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP
1347634241 ADSP SERVER_ROLE_MEMBER_CHANGE_GROUP
538987585 AL ALTER
1313033281 ALCN ALTER CONNECTION
1397902401 ALRS ALTER RESOURCES
1397967937 ALSS ALTER SERVER STATE
1414745153 ALST ALTER SETTINGS
1381256257 ALTR ALTER TRACE
1280462913 APRL ADD MEMBER
538989377 AS ACCESS
1129534785 AUSC AUDIT SESSION CHANGED
1179866433 AUSF AUDIT SHUTDOWN ON FAILURE
1213486401 AUTH AUTHENTICATE
538984770 BA BACKUP
541868354 BAL BACKUP LOG
1111773762 BRDB BACKUP_RESTORE_GROUP
1179595331 C2OF TRACE AUDIT C2OFF
1313813059 C2ON TRACE AUDIT C2ON
1196180291 CCLG CHANGE LOGIN CREDENTIAL
1196182851 CMLG CREDENTIAL MAP TO LOGIN
1430343235 CNAU AUDIT_CHANGE_GROUP
538988355 CO CONNECT
538988611 CP CHECKPOINT
538989123 CR CREATE
538976324 D DENY
1179074884 DAGF FAILED_DATABASE_AUTHENTICATION_GROUP
1279738180 DAGL DATABASE_LOGOUT_GROUP
1397178692 DAGS SUCCESSFUL_DATABASE_AUTHENTICATION_GROUP
1178681924 DBAF DATABASE AUTHENTICATION FAILED
1396785732 DBAS DATABASE AUTHENTICATION SUCCEEDED
1128481348 DBCC DBCC
1195590212 DBCG DBCC_GROUP
541868612 DBL DATABASE LOGOUT
538987588 DL DELETE
1280462916 DPRL DROP MEMBER
538989124 DR DROP
541284164 DWC DENY WITH CASCADE
538990661 EX EXECUTE
538989638 FT FULLTEXT
541545542 FTG FULLTEXT_GROUP
538976327 G GRANT
1111773767 GRDB DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP
1329877575 GRDO DATABASE_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP
542069319 GRO SCHEMA_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP
1330860615 GRSO SERVER_OBJECT_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP
1448301127 GRSV SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP
541546311 GWG GRANT WITH GRANT
1346653513 IMDP DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP
542133577 IMP IMPERSONATE
1347636553 IMSP SERVER_PRINCIPAL_IMPERSONATION_GROUP
538988105 IN INSERT
541214540 LGB BROKER LOGIN
1195525964 LGBG BROKER_LOGIN_GROUP
1094993740 LGDA DISABLE
1111770956 LGDB CHANGE DEFAULT DATABASE
1095059276 LGEA ENABLE
1279674188 LGFL FAILED_LOGIN_GROUP
1179207500 LGIF LOGIN FAILED
1397311308 LGIS LOGIN SUCCEEDED
1196181324 LGLG CHANGE DEFAULT LANGUAGE
541935436 LGM DATABASE MIRRORING LOGIN
1196246860 LGMG DATABASE_MIRRORING_LOGIN_GROUP
1296975692 LGNM NAME CHANGE
542066508 LGO LOGOUT
1146308428 LGSD SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP
538988364 LO LOGOUT_GROUP
1111772749 MNDB DATABASE_CHANGE_GROUP
1329876557 MNDO DATABASE_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP
1346653773 MNDP DATABASE_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP
542068301 MNO SCHEMA_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP
1330859597 MNSO SERVER_OBJECT_CHANGE_GROUP
1347636813 MNSP SERVER_PRINCIPAL_CHANGE_GROUP
1196182862 NMLG NO CREDENTIAL MAP TO LOGIN
538988623 OP OPEN
1111773263 OPDB DATABASE_OPERATION_GROUP
1448300623 OPSV SERVER_OPERATION_GROUP
1380013904 PWAR APPLICATION_ROLE_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP
541284176 PWC CHANGE PASSWORD
1195595600 PWCG LOGIN_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP
1396922192 PWCS CHANGE OWN PASSWORD
1480939344 PWEX PASSWORD EXPIRATION
1129142096 PWMC MUST CHANGE PASSWORD
1280333648 PWPL PASSWORD POLICY
542267216 PWR RESET PASSWORD
1397905232 PWRS RESET OWN PASSWORD
542463824 PWU UNLOCK ACCOUNT
538976338 R REVOKE
538985298 RC RECEIVE
538986066 RF REFERENCES
538989394 RS RESTORE
541284178 RWC REVOKE WITH CASCADE
541546322 RWG REVOKE WITH GRANT
538987603 SL SELECT
538988115 SN SEND
1313624147 SPLN SHOW PLAN
1448301651 STSV SERVER_STATE_CHANGE_GROUP
1313953107 SUQN SUBSCRIBE QUERY NOTIFICATION
1313035859 SVCN SERVER CONTINUE
1146115667 SVPD SERVER PAUSED
1146312275 SVSD SERVER SHUTDOWN
1381193299 SVSR SERVER STARTED
1095975252 TASA TRACE AUDIT START
1347633492 TASP TRACE AUDIT STOP
538988372 TO TAKE OWNERSHIP
1111773012 TODB DATABASE_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP
1329876820 TODO DATABASE_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP
542068564 TOO SCHEMA_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP
1330859860 TOSO SERVER_OBJECT_OWNERSHIP_CHANGE_GROUP
1195594324 TRCG TRACE_CHANGE_GROUP
542069332 TRO TRANSFER
1346847573 UCGP USER_CHANGE_PASSWORD_GROUP
1195459669 UDAG USER_DEFINED_AUDIT_GROUP
1430340693 UDAU USER DEFINED AUDIT
538988629 UP UPDATE
1178686293 USAF CHANGE USERS LOGIN AUTO
1196184405 USLG CHANGE USERS LOGIN
1129599829 USTC COPY PASSWORD
1414743126 VDST VIEW DATABASE STATE
1414746966 VSST VIEW SERVER STATE
1413699414 VWCT VIEW CHANGETRACKING
538984792 XA EXTERNAL ACCESS ASSEMBLY
538989912 XU UNSAFE ASSEMBLY

Saturday, August 15, 2015

Database Lifecycle Management - Dacpacs

I came across an excellent article recently @ Simple-Talk discussing Dacpacs, working with them, structures, etc. in quite a bit of detail for a short article. This post discuses benefits, drawbacks, and potential areas of concern for working with dacpacs for your database management.

https://www.simple-talk.com/sql/database-delivery/microsoft-and-database-lifecycle-management-%28dlm%29-the-dacpac/

The PowerShell scripts are well worth checking out and there are several interesting calls for SQLPackage along the way. I appreciated his findings with some of the issues - not always seeing changes that should be detected. I suspect that there's a setting not configured properly there, but couldn't say for sure. I know that I haven't hit any issues when using SQLPackage and dacpacs for normal DB development of the sort discovered at the end of the article.

The conclusion is spot on, whatever solution you use - check your scripts, test, and verify before just putting the solution into production.

Monday, July 20, 2015

Pre-deploy SQL Scripts before checking for changes

I just came across a post from Ed Elliot (b | t ) about running Scripts before the SQL Package process runs. Sort of a "Pre" Pre-deploy script.  The concept is simple enough, but it's something people have wanted for a while.

Here's the main article.

The general idea is that you add a SQL Script to your project with:
Build Action = "None"
Copy To Directory = "Copy Always" (or "Copy if Newer")

When you set up your publish actions, look for this script first, run it in PowerShell, SQLCMD, or whatever other option you might have, then run your SQLPackage commands as normal. It will run through whatever scripts you want to run first, then compare against the modified database to bring it up to date.

The idea is pretty clever, though I haven't come across a lot of need for it when trying to deploy DB changes. I'm not quite comfortable with a script running to change the state of the database to something unknown prior to running the script to bring it in line with version control. I suppose it has some use-cases, though, as I've come across this request several times on Stack Overflow.

Friday, November 7, 2014

SSAS Tabular and Excel PowerPivot

I don’t know why it took so long before making the connection between PowerPivot models and SSAS Tabular models, but in the last couple of days I came across several blogs and videos tying the two together. With that in mind, I took the plunge into PowerPivot and built a quick model off of some SQL queries to test out a concept.

I started with the basics of mocking up a fact table. I stripped out decorator text, “renamed” a couple of columns in the query, filtered the data so I wouldn’t pull back a crazy amount into my local workstation, verified the counts and look of the data in a SQL query, and added that. Excel quickly loaded 1.2M rows and didn’t blink.

After that, I knew I needed a couple of Dimension-like tables. I wrote queries for those in a similar fashion and added the data again. Each addition went smoothly. I was able to add the proper relationships quickly to tie everything together.

To finalize the model, I created a couple of hierarchies to make querying easier. After messing around with these several times in SSAS Multi-Dimensional, I was shocked at how easy it was to create a hierarchy for dates and even certain domain-specific entries in our data: Right-click, create new hierarchy, drag and drop columns. Done.

After the model was finished, I dropped the relevant fact data into a Pivot Table and could easily analyze the data in all sorts of interesting ways. I worked around this with OLAP for quite some time to come up with a similar concept. With PowerPivot, I wrote a couple of queries, linked the tables, and had something workable within an hour. As an added benefit, I know I can scale that up to an SSAS server without too much trouble and have a similar experience.

Hat tip to the folks @ www.powerpivotpro.com and www.sqlbi.com for the many articles and pointers to get me started and over that initial hump.

Friday, September 26, 2014

Exploring BIML

Getting Started

I attended Varigence’s BIML Workshop last year prior to the PASS conference and got to learn a little BIML while seeing what it can do. Recently, I realized that I had a job to do that required applying the same SSIS ETL to several different sets of tables in our system. I figured this would be a great time to put some of that BIML into use.

To get started, you’ll need either the BIDS Helper add-on or a copy of Varigence’s Mist. While Mist is an excellent tool, it’s also priced towards the people who are really working with BIML and not targeted at those who aren’t quite ready to justify the cost. ($249/month or $3999 at the time I’m writing this – worth it if you use a lot of BIML, but not for everyone)

I made sure my BIDS Helper bits were up to date, started a new SSIS Project, and added a new BIML file by right-clicking the project and selecting “Add New BIML File”. After that I followed a couple of excellent walkthroughs and tutorials to get me started and refresh my memory. To name a couple of sources:

 

Challenges

1. Actually getting my connection string correct. I don’t often type in connection strings so hit the ConnectionStrings.com website for SQL OLEDB connections. That told me to use this format for my connect strings:

Provider=SQLNCLI11;Server=myServerAddress;Database=myDataBase;
Trusted_Connection=yes;

Regardless of what I tried, this refused to connect as expected. I eventually changed back to the older syntax and that worked:

Provider=SQLNCLI11;Data Source=myServerAddress;Initial Catalog=myDataBase;Integrated Security=True;

Not a huge deal, but this was giving me fits with my connections with either security issues or having to specify DB Names in my code.

 

2. Next up – not knowing C# or BIML very well. Nothing for this except time and practice. :-)  I got better along the way, slowly catching things as I typed them in and having some feel for what would happen.

 

3. For some reason, my Intellisense completely stopped working at one point. It worked for everything prior to when I added my “import” lines for various namespaces, but anything after that wouldn’t work at all. I got around this a little by using the BimlScript Editor online to check some code, but obviously this doesn’t work when you’re importing local columns. I never did get this working but also haven’t tried to reproduce it with a new project.

Update: It seems that if I move my @ Import statements before I open the first BIML tag in the XML, my intellisense works again. Putting the statements within the Biml section is perfectly valid, but putting them at the top/beginning of the file before I start writing Biml makes a lot more sense and results in Intellisense working again. This would have made my life easier.

 

4. The last major challenge this time through was trying to get BIML to generate a logical “AND” in the SSIS expression I wanted to use. I typed it in, used “&&” for my AND statement, and checked syntax. I repeatedly got errors about syntax. The first time around, I figured my expression might be too long. It was and I broke it apart only to get the same error. I looked at the string generated using some MessageBox.Show() hacks and it looked okay. I finally came across a tip indicating that BIML doesn’t work well with the “&” character. The suggestion was to replace that with “&” whenever you wanted to output an ampersand as part of the expression. This worked well and my package was generated.

 

Next

I still need to tweak my package. I have more tables to import from a different source on the same server, but targeting a single database on my destination server. I need to figure out tiers and included files to better reuse and organize code. I’d love to get the correct connections going so BIML and SSIS read the correct column data types, especially when it comes to BLOB data columns. I need to rework some of the package components to better adhere to best practices. Overall it’s been an interesting ride trying to figure these things out and while it may not have saved time with this particular project, I’ll be able to use the lessons learned for my next project.

Tuesday, August 26, 2014

SQL Projects & Change Data Capture

I ran across this article from MSSQLTips.com discussing the use of CDC with SQL Projects. We don’t use CDC with our current systems so I’d never tried to investigate this, but I would also have expected better support out of the box. In the meantime, Ray Barley wrote up a good article on enabling CDC for the Database and then using post-deploy scripts to enable CDC for tables.

Find the article here: www.mssqltips.com/sqlservertip/3316/how-to-enable-change-tracking-in-a-sql-server-database-project/